Water Pollution /water Pollution complet Notes/wbcs, psc, ssc exam

Definition of water pollution

If the mixing of any unwanted substance with water changes the physical, chemical and biological properties of the water and there is a risk of harm to aquatic plants, animals and human beings, then that bad condition of water is called water pollution or water solution.

Environmental scientists have given various definitions of water pollution. Although the main tone of their words is the same, the style of interpretation is different.

For example, Manibascom, in his book ‘Environmental Pollution’, says that adverse changes in the properties and quality of water are called water pollution, which results in loss of water efficiency.

In his book, Ecology and the Quality of Our Environment, Southwick defines water pollution as the loss of the natural, chemical and biological properties of water due to human activities and natural causes.

Causes of water pollution

Water is polluted for various reasons. E.g.-

1. Houses – Daily household waste contaminates water.

2. Industrial waste contaminates water.

3. Water is polluted due to agricultural waste.

4. Water pollution is caused by dirty water washed away from settlements after rains.

5. Detergents contaminate water.

. Oil floating in seawater pollutes seawater.

. Acid rain also contaminates the water.

6. When the heat of water increases, water becomes polluted.

9. Water pollution occurs when disease germs grow in the water.

Impact of water pollution

Water Pollution

Effects of water pollution on human body:

Diseases such as typhoid, jaundice, dysentery, intestinal, upset stomach, tuberculosis, hepatitis, skin diseases, arsenic contamination, etc. can take epidemic shape from contaminated water.

Water mixed with copper, chlorine, mercury, nickel, iron, cyanide causes skin diseases and stomach ailments. Excess fluorine in water can cause serious diseases such as allergies, kidney problems, paralysis, bone deformities, etc.

Impact of water pollution on the environment:-

1. Cultivation in contaminated water damages bacteria and germs that live in the soil.

2. Contaminated groundwater increases the amount of alkali in the soil.

3. Physiological changes occur in plants in contaminated water. As a result the quality of the grain is lost. Agricultural production is disrupted.

4. Floating oil seals in marine waters damage marine animals and plants and reduce fish production.

5. Toxic substances accumulate in aquatic plants due to the effect of contaminated water.

Such as: – Naphthalene, Phenanthrine, Benzpirine etc.

-: Types of water pollution: –

There are five types of water pollution. Such as: –

1. Ground Water Pollution

2. River Water Pollution

3. Lake Water Pollution

4. Sea water Pollution

5. Surface Water Pollution

Sources of water pollution

Direct Sources of Water Pollution : – The sources from which water is being polluted, when they can be directly identified and how they are being polluted, are called direct sources or point sources.

Such as: – Factories, power plants, sewers etc. These sources of water pollution can be controlled with the help of technology, machinery or legislation.

Indirect sources of water pollution: – When water is being polluted from any place, when they cannot be directly identified, or it becomes difficult to control them even by using any equipment, those sources of water pollution are called indirect sources or non-point sources.

Such as: – Arable land, forest land, dirty water of roads etc.

Arsenic Contamination

Definition : Contamination of water or soil with excess arsenic is called arsenic contamination. However, arsenic pollution usually comes to mind first in terms of water pollution.

Arsenic is an element. Arsenic can form various toxic metal compounds by reacting with metals. Compounds such as arsenic gas, arsenite, arsenic oxide, etc. harm plants, animals, people and the environment. Soil is contaminated when excess arsenic is added to the soil. Similarly, mixing arsenic with water pollutes the water.

Levels of arsenic contamination

Lately, the level of arsenic pollution has been increasing in different countries of the world such as Taiwan, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, India etc. The number of patients infected with arsenic contamination in 111 blocks in 12 districts of West Bengal is about 50 million. About two lakh of them are suffering from serious skin diseases. The average amount of arsenic per liter of contaminated water in these districts is more than 50 micrograms. However, the maximum permissible level of arsenic is 0.05 mg / liter.

Causes of arsenic contamination

In recent times, scientists believe that arsenic contamination in water has the effect of excessive arsenic levels in the soil. It may be mentioned here that the higher the amount of iron and aluminum in the soil, the higher the risk of arsenic in the soil. India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Canada, Germany, Russia, China, Taiwan and other countries have high levels of iron and aluminum in their soils.

Effects of arsenic contamination on humans

The recent effects of arsenic contamination in water are: –

1. Inflammation of the lungs, asthma, bronchitis.

2. Liver disease occurs.

3. Arsenic accumulates in the skin, nails and hair of human beings and can cause skin rashes, black spots on hands and feet, itching and cancer.

Numerous white spots are formed on the hands and toenails. Itching can cause cancer. Numerous white spots are formed on the nails of the hands and feet. It is called ‘Miz Rekha’ or ‘Aldrich Mitch Line’.

4. On the face, bluish spots appear on the face.

5. Diseases of the urethra.

The soles of the feet are black. It is called “Blackfoot Disease.” It has killed millions of people in Chile and Taiwan.

Effects of arsenic contamination on plants and animals: – Arsenic accumulates in plant cells and damages those cells. Arsenic contamination causes skin diseases in animals. The lungs are affected.

Arsenicosis: – The disease caused by arsenic contamination in the human body is called arsenicosis.

Ways to control arsenic contamination:

1. Ways to make drinking water completely arsenic free recently (July, 2017)

Scientists from the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) in Jadavpur have made the discovery. The method is: –

When arsenic contaminated water is mixed with a powder called zinc sulphide, the water becomes safe water according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards.

2. Surface water such as ponds, reservoirs, lakes, river water can be used as drinking water. Rain water is also usable. These waters do not contain arsenic contamination.

3. Groundwater from shallow deep water levels should not be used.

4. Among the technologies used for arsenic free drinking water are co-precipitation, iron exchange, activated alumina filtration etc.

Minamata Disease

The incurable disease that caused the human body in the 1950s and 60s in the vicinity of Minamata Bay of Japan due to mercury pollution is called Minamata disease or Minamata disease.

Minamata symptoms

This disease is also called Chiso-Minamata disease. This results in damage to the nervous system in the human body. The limbs become numb. Muscles are weak. People lose vision, hearing, speech. Is paralysis. Is in a coma. Is death.

Causes of Minamata disease:

Chisso corporation of Japan in the 1950s and 60s

Large quantities of methylmercury from the factory were dumped into Minamata Bay. As a result, the level of mercury increases locally. Thousands of people died of Minamata disease. Damage to marine animals and ecosystems.


Cadmium contamination has been harmful to humans since 1912 in the Toyama region of Hansu Island, Japan.

The disease that caused the bone disease is known as itai-itai or auch-auch disease.

Itai-itai disease symptoms

The bones of the body are weak. Breaks easily. In particular, the bones of the legs and the bones of the spine are damaged. Anemia or anemia is seen. The kidneys are damaged. Is death.

This is the cause of the disease:

From the sixteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century, the Kamioka mine was famous for the extraction of gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, etc. in the Toyama region of Hansu Island, Japan. As a result of mining, a lot of cadmium, which is found with zinc, is released into the environment. As a result, the water of Jinju River is polluted. This water was used for cultivation. So water and soil across large areas become contaminated with cadmium. This is heavy metal pollution.

Bacterial water borne diseases due to water pollution: –

1. Diseases caused by unicellular protozoa: –

Amoebiasis, Giardiasis means diarrhea, Giardia.

2. Diseases caused by viruses: –

Viral hepatitis A and E, polio.

3. Bacterial diseases: –

Typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery.

4. Diseases caused by worms: – Hydatid disease from roundworms and tapeworms.

Ways to control water pollution:

Just as there are direct ways to control polluted water, there are also control measures to prevent water from becoming contaminated. Such as: –

1. To stop direct dumping of waste in rivers, canals, beels, ponds, lakes and seawater and to control sewage waste.

2. Only after purifying the water can the rivers, canals, beels and reservoirs be released.

3. Arrange for wastewater treatment.

4. To stop the spread of oil in the sea water.

5. Raise public awareness.

. Stop filling ponds or reservoirs with garbage only.

. Compliance with water pollution laws.

. To control the application of additional fertilizers and pesticides in cultivation.

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