Defence & Technology|rlearn

ISRO[ Indian Space Research Organisation]: ✹Indian space programme begins in 1962 with setup of Indian National Committee for space Research (INCOSPAR).
✹Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was formed in 1969.
✹ISRO Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) is situated at Thiruvanthapuram.
✹ ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) is situated at Bangaluru.
✹Satish Dhawan Space Centre is
situated at Sriharikota, AP.
✹ISRO Space Application Centre (SAC) is situated at Ahmedabad.

ISRO Lauch fleet are:
1. SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle-3) – India’s first experimental satellite launch vehicle.
2. ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle)
3. PLSV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) was first operational launch vehicle of ISRO.
4. GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle).

ISRO SATELLITES:Aryabhatta was First Indian Experimental Satellite launched on 19th April 1975.
✹First Earth Observation Satellite was BHASKARA-I launched on 7th June 1979.
✹First Geo-stationary Satellite was INSAT-IA launched on 10th April 1982.
Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first lunar probe. It was launched by ISRO on 22 October 2008.
IRNSS is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system that is being set up by India, that will be used to provide accurate real-time positioning and timing services over India and the region extending to 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) around India.
Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC) system will consist of a constellation of 3 satellites in Geostationary orbit (GEO), 4 satellites in Geosynchronous orbit (GSO), approximately 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) altitude above earth surface, and two satellites on the ground as stand-by, in addition to ground stations. The Indian government approved the project in May 2006.
✹ Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has scripted history on 15th February 2016 as ISRO launched a record 104 satellites in one go on board a single rocket PSLV from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. 101 satellites were from international clients. Of these- 96 belong to USA, 5 from International customers of ISRO – Israel, Kazakhstan, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, respectively. Two other Indian nano satellites INS-1A and INS-1B were also placed in orbit. India now surpasses the record of Russian Space Agency which had earlier launched 37 satellites in one go.

INS-1C was launched on 10 January 2018. INS-1C, the third satellite in the Indian Nanosatellite series, will be carrying a Miniature Multispectral Technology Demonstration (MMX-TD) Payload from Space Applications Centre (SAC). Data sent by this camera can be utilised for topographical mapping, vegetation monitoring, aerosol scattering studies and cloud studies.

GSAT-6A was launched on 29 March 2018. GSAT-6A it is a high power S-band communication satellite configured around I-2K bus. The satellite will also provide a platform for developing technologies such as demonstration of 6 m S-Band Unfurlable Antenna, handheld ground terminals and network management techniques that could be useful in satellite based mobile communication applications.
✹ The Indian Venusian orbiter mission is a planned orbiter to Venus by ISRO to study the atmosphere of Venus. It will be launched some time after 2020.
PSLV-C43 / HysIS Mission: PSLV-C43 lifted off at 0957 hrs (IST) on November 29, 2018 from the First Launch Pad (FLP) of Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota and successfully launched India’s Hyper spectral Imaging Satellite (HysIS) and 30 international co-passenger satellites.
GSAT-11 Mission: India’s next generation high throughput communication satellite, GSAT-11 was successfully launched on December 05, 2018 from Kourou launch base, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-246. Weighing about 5854 kg, GSAT-11 is the heaviest satellite built by ISRO.
GSLV-F11 / GSAT-7A Mission: GSLV-F11 successfully launched GSAT-7A, ISRO’s 39th communication satellite, on December 19, 2018 from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) of Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. ✹ PSLV-C44: India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C44) successfully injected Microsat-R and Kalamsat-V2 satellites into their designated orbits on 24th January 2019.


✹Mangalyaan or Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a spacecraft orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.
✹Mangalyaan Launch date: 5 November 2013.
✹ Mangalyaan Orbital insertion: 24 September 2014
✹ Launch site: First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre,
Sriharikota(AP) using a PSLV rocket C25.
✹ India is first country to conduct a successful Mars mission ‘Mangalyaan’ on its first try after US, European Space Agency and the former Soviet Union.

✹ Chandrayaan-2 was an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before — the Moon’s South Polar Region.
✹Chandrayaan-2, India’s 2nd moon mission (after Chandrayaan-1, 2008) was successfully launched by GSLV-MkIII-M1 from Second Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

✹Mission Objective: To demonstrate key technologies for end-to-end lunar mission capability, including soft-landing and roving on lunar surface.
✹Landing: On September 7, during the last minutes of descent, the communication link snapped with Vikram when it was about 2.1 kms from the surface of the moon.


✹Founded on 15th August 1947.
Motto is: “Service Before Self”
✹When the post of CDS was created with General Rawat taking charge on January 1, 2020, the CDS was appointed as the permanent head of the committee, the first among equals —the four-star chiefs. After General Rawat’s death, General Naravane has taken over the role as he is the most senior among the serving chiefs. ✹General Manoj Mukund Naravane PVSM AVSM SM VSM ADC is an Indian Army General who is currently serving as the 27th Chief of the Army Staff, as well as the temporary Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee since 15 December 2021..
✹ General Manoj Mukund Naravane PVSM, AVSM, SM, VSM, ADC is a Four Star general of the Indian Army and the 28th Chief of the Army Staff. He took over from General Bipin Rawat on 31 December 2019 after the latter completed his term as the COAS.
Gen. KM Cariappa was first Indian Chief of Indian Army.
Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, also known as Sam Bahadur was the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal.
✹Indian Military Academy is situated at Dehradun.
✹DRDO stands for Defence Research and Development Organization
✹DRDO was established in 1958
✹DRDO have approx. 52 Labs across India.


✹ Indian air force was established on 8 October 1932.
Motto is: “Touch the Sky with Glory”.
✹ Current Chief of Air Force: Air Chief Marshal Rakesh Kumar Singh Bhadauria who took office on 30 September 2019
✹ Air Marshal S. Mukherjee was first Indian chief of Indian Air force.
✹ Air Force academy is situated at Hyderabad.


✹Indian Navy was established on 26 January 1950.
✹ Indian Navy Motto is Sham No Varunah (May the Lord of the Oceans be auspicious unto us).
✹Current Chief of Naval Staff: Admiral Karambir Singh since 31 May 2019
✹The Rank of Admiral of the fleet never been awarded in Indian Navy.
✹Naval academy is situated at Goa.