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Scientific And Technological Advancement : Internet & Networking

It is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite[TCP/IP] to link several billion of communication devices worldwide.

World Wide Web (www or W3) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet.
A Website is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain.
A Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking on the link.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. Internet Explorer, Chrome, Fire fox are some of the common examples of web browsers.
On 6 August 1991, Tim Berners-Lee published the first internet site from CERN, the world’s largest physics lab in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource.
Web Search Engine: A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). Some active web search engines are listed below:

Qwant — 2013| CocCoc – 2013 | Egerin —2013 | Yacy—2011 | Bing—2009 | SoSo—2006 | Search. Com —2006 | Google —1998| Yahoo—1995 | Web Crawler—1994 | Lycos—1994 | W 3 Catalog —1993 (inactive).

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network.
It acts as an identifier for a computer. It is a unique address for every computer.
Sabeer Bhatia along with Jack Smith in July 1996 co-founded Hotmail.
Data Communication deals with the transmission of data from one device to another. Data is transferred through a pathway called the communication channel which can be physical wire connecting the devices or may be unguided media like laser, microwave, etc. A communication channel is of 3 types:

1) Simplex: One of the two devices can transmit the data and the other can only receive the data. For example,radio and television broadcasting.
2) Half Duplex-Either of the devices can act as transmitter or receiver but only one device can transmit the data at one time. For example, walkie talkie.
3)Full Duplex -Both the devices can simultaneously transmit the data. For example-telephone.

Electronic mail (email): Electronic mail is a method of exchanging digital messages between computer users. Email first entered substantial use in the 1960s and by the 1970s had taken the form now recognised as email.

Some of the common terms used in email are:
Spam: Email ‘spam’ is the term used to describe Unsolicited commercial, or bulk, email. The low cost of sending such email meant that by 2003 up to 30 per cent of total email traffic was already spam and was threatening the usefulness of email as a practical tool.

Email spoofing: Email spoofing occurs when the email message header is designed to make the message appear to come from a known or trusted source. Email spam and phishing methods typically use spoofing to mislead the recipient about the correct origin of the message. Email spoofing may be done as a prank, or as part of a criminal effort todefraud an individual or an organisation.
Malware -Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising.
Email bankruptey-Also known as ’email fatigue’,email bankruptcy is when a user ignores a large number of email messages after falling behind in reading and answering them.
ARPANET: The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) is an early packet switching network
and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP Both technologies became the technical base of the internet.
Spooling: Spooling is a process in which data is temporarily held to be used and executed by a device, program or the system. Data is sent to and stored in memory or other volatile storage until the program or computer requests it for execution.