TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS|Primary & Upper Primary Tet Exam
Teaching Learning Materials (TLM), also known as instructional aids, facilitate a teacher in achieving the learning objectives formulated by her/him prior to teaching-learning activities start.
Teaching learning materials provide a range of learning experiences to learners from direct to indirect. Edgar Dale (1969) arranged the learning experiences on a continuum of ‘directness to indirectness’ which has correlation with continuum of ‘concreteness to abstract’. He called it a ‘Cone of Experiences’.
(i) Motivate Learners: TLMs help in capturing the attention of learner in classroom. TLMs provide a variety of stimuli, which helps in making classroom teaching most effective.
(ii) Help in longer retention of information: The more the number of sensory channels involved in interacting with TLMs, the longer will be the retention of information. Therefore, the learning will be effective and will last long.
(iii) Facilitate holistic learning: To achieve varied objectives, varied learning experiences need to be provided, which can be done through the use of TLMs.
(iv) Helps in organizing classroom teaching: You can use visual or verbal TLMs to present accurate data in sequentially organized manner. This helps teacher to verbal and visual communication in classroom. Thus, you may use TLMs to overcome shortcomings in verbal or visual communication.
(v) Practical applications: TLMs show application of theoretical knowledge into practical applications.
(vi) Making learning fun: TLMs help in making learning fun in the classroom. Students enjoy the novelty of handling new objects and learn new concepts through them.
(vi) Concept formation: TLMs facilitate the formation and attainment of concepts among children. They concretize the abstract concepts; thus children are able to understand them and not resort to rote learning.
TLMs can broadly classify into three categories :
1. Audio Aids: TLMs primarily stimulate the hearing sense of learner. It includes – human voice, telephonic conversation, audio discs/tapes, gram ophon e records,
2. Visual Aids: These types of TLMs involve the sense of vision. They stimulate the visual impulses. These
can be of various types as given below.
✧ Visual (Verbal) Print. (the text is the main instructional or teaching learning aid)
• Textbook, Supplem en tary book.
• Reference books, encyclopedia, etc.
• Magazine, Newspaper
• Documents and Clippings Case Studies/Reports etc.
• Visual (Pictorial- Non Projected)
(a) Non – projected two dimensional: Examples of
such type of TLMs are blackboard writing and drawing Charts, Posters, Maps, Diagrams, Graphs, Photographs, Cartoons, Comic strips.
(b) Non – projected three dimensional: It includes –
Models, Mock-up, Diorama, Globe, Relief Map, Specimen, Puppet, and Hologram.
3. Audio Visual Aids: These are the projected aids, which use both auditory and visual senses to enhance learning. The greatest advan tage of these is they are
the closest represen tation of reality. These include Motion Picture Film, Television, Video discs/cassettes,
slide – tape presentations, Multimedia Computer.
Who can take Benefits from Visual Aids ?
Though every children can take benefit while using visual aids for learning. But it is more helpful for those students:
• Having Language Disorder.
• Autism Spectrum Disorder.
• Down Syn drome.
• Those who have Learning Disabilities.
• Student who have English as a secondary Language.
• Those having Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
• Personality Developm ent Delay
• Have the problem of Hearing Impairment.
• Have the symptoms of Atten tion Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD.
• Its helps to make learning process more effective and conceptual.
• Its helps to grab the attenti on of students.
• It builds interest and motivation teaching students learning process.
• It enhan ce the energy level of teaching and students.
• It is even better for over burden classrooms.
• It provides studen ts a realistic approach and experience.